Ad Hominem (Latin for "against the man") is a fallacy when someone rejects his or her opponent's argument on the basis of that person's personal characteristics (appearance, age, birthplace and etc.)
ET: I don't think all people should go to college now.. The college degree is overrated and you have to spend a lot of money on it risking to be drowned in hefty loans until you retire. For example, lots of people are very good at working with their hands, they might as well become carpenters and be much better off without a degree.
Adam: ET, you are extraterrestrial, you haven't had any human experiences, so you can't know what is good for us humans.
Strawman is a fallacy when a person attacks a position that his or her opponent doesn't really hold. It could be done deliberately when a person has nothing to offer against the real argument and wants to distort it to be able to attack it. Or it could be done accidentally when a person doesn't get the opponent's argument.
ET: I don't think that my planet of origin should define my ability to hold a position that could touch upon people and their experiences. Those who like to create things made of wood and they do it well don't have to get psychology or political science degrees just to have a piece of paper confirming that they had 4 years of college education. They can earn as much or even more by doing what they really like, be satisfied and debt-free.
Adam: So you're trying to say that psychology, political science and other liberal arts degrees are useless!? Look at Mary: she's a psychology major and she's got a very successful private practice..Or look at John: he studied international relations and now he's a popular podcaster and he's already paid off his loans! Most people I know who went to college are doing well now..
Appeal to Ignorance is a fallacy when a person claims that a statement is true if it can't be proven false, or a statement is false if it can't be proven true.
ET: Not at all, I'm not claiming that liberal arts degrees are useless. On the contrary, they can be enlightening and worthwhile for many people, especially those who are genuinely interested in pursuing careers related to liberal arts degrees. All I'm saying is that you don't have to do what you don't like to do just because you or your parents are seeking status in the form of a college degree. Carpenters are just an example, there're lots of vocations that don't require degrees and are compensated handsomely. There are lots of people who have a great potential for these vocations and who could do easily without a college degree.
Adam: Have you ever seen any studies confirming that it's better for these people to not pursue any college degrees? There's no proof so we can't say that these people are better off not going to college.
Appeal to Popularity is a fallacy when a person claims that a statement is true since a significant number of people believe it is true.
Appeal to Authority is a fallacy when a person claims that a statement is true because a certain important (or not very important) person says so.
Appeal to Tradition is a fallacy when a person claims that a statement is true because it is correlated with a certain tradition, past or present.
Appeal to Emotion (pity, affection) is a fallacy when a person tries to win the argument by manipulating his or her opponent's emotions.
ET: I can ask you the same question whether you've ever seen any evidence that getting a college degree is better than doing something that you really like. The mere fact that there's no proof that doing a trade that you like is better than getting a liberal arts degree doesn't indicate that my argument is necessarily wrong.
Adam: The thing is, 99% of people do not agree with you and understand the importance of college education for everyone. Moreover, both Ben Affleck and George Clooney believe that college education is essential. All countries have been trying to promote higher education for decades so that everyone could benefit from that and now it's part of every modern country's tradition to prepare high school students for college.